- Early History
- The Franks
- Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire
- The Capetian Dynasty
- The Valois Dynasty
- The Bourbon Dynasty
- The French Revolution
- The Third Republic
- Frequently Asked Questions
- External References-
France is a country in Western Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. The history of France dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it emerged as a major European power. It was eventually ruled by the House of Capet from 987 to 1792, when it became a republic after the French Revolution.
The a history of france pdf is a comprehensive and detailed history of France. The book was written by the historian Fernand Braudel in 1949.
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Welcome to A History of France! My name is Sarah and this is my blog about the fascinating history of one of the world’s most famous and influential countries. In this blog, I will discuss everything from the origins of the French monarchy to their role in World War II. I hope you enjoy reading my posts as much as I enjoy writing them!
The first humans settled in France around 1.8 million years ago, as evidenced by stone tools found in the south of the country. These early settlers were likely Neanderthals. Around 600,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (modern humans) arrived in France and settled throughout the country.
The first recorded history of France begins with the Gauls, a Celtic people who inhabited present-day France from about 500 BC to 50 BC. The Gauls were conquered by Julius Caesar in 52 BC, and control of Gaul passed to Rome. Roman rule lasted until 486 AD, when the Germanic leader Clovis I defeated the last Roman emperor and became ruler of all Franksufffdthe people who lived in present-day northern France and Belgium.
In 800 AD, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Leo III. This made him one of the most powerful rulers in Europe and effectively established the Kingdom of Franciaufffdwhich included present-day France, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Italy (except Sardinia), Spain (except Asturias), and parts of Hungary and Slovenia. After Charlemagneufffds death in 814 AD, his empire was divided among his sons into several smaller kingdoms; one of these was Francia Occidentalisufffdor West Franciaufffdwhich roughly corresponded with modern France.
Kingdom of France:
The Kingdom of France was founded in 987 AD by Hugh Capet, a descendant of Charlemagneufffds fatherless son Bernard II (who had been passed over for succession). At that time only about one-fifth of present-day France was under Capetian control; however, over the next few centuries Capetian kings slowly increased their power and territory until they controlled almost all of modern-day France by 1328 AD . In addition to their territorial expansion withinFrance ,the Capetians also established themselves as powerful rulers abroad; under King Philip II Augustus (ruled 1180ufffd1223), for example ,the KingdomofFrance reached its greatest extent ,encompassing not only mostofpresent – dayFrance butalso largeparts o fBelgium ,the Netherlands ,Luxembourg ,Germany’sRhine River valley ,and muchofItaly . However this greatexpansion would notlast :by1328manyofthe addedterritories hadbeensacrificedin favorofstability at homeandinthe faceoffrequentinvasionsfromabroad ufffdfirstby thenormansin themiddleagesand laterby suchforeignpowersasSpainandEngland .
The Franks were a tribe of people who lived in what is now France. They were one of the first groups of people to settle in the area, and they established the Kingdom of France. The Franks were a powerful force in Europe during the Middle Ages, and their influence can still be seen today.
The history of France is long and complex, but it can be divided into four main periods:
– The Early Middle Ages (4th to 10th century)
– The High Middle Ages (11th to 13th century)
– The Late Middle Ages (14th to 15th century)
– The Early Modern Period (16th to 18th century)
Each of these periods has its own distinct characteristics, and there have been many important events in French history that have shaped the country into what it is today.
Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire
The kingdom of France was founded in 843 AD by the Treaty of Verdun, when the Carolingian Empire was divided into three parts. The largest part went to Charles the Bald, who became king of West Francia; the second largest went to his brother Lothair I, who became king of Middle Francia; and the smallest part went to their cousin Louis the German, who became king of East Francia.
The history of France can be traced back to ancient times when a group of Celtic peoples known as the Gauls inhabited present-day France. One of the most famous periods in French history is the reign of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, who ruled from 768-814. He expanded his kingdom into an empire that included much of western and central Europe. After his death, his son Louis I inherited a portion of this empire and established the Carolingian dynasty.
During this time, there were many wars between France and other kingdoms including England and Germany. In 1066, William the Conqueror invaded England and established himself as king. This resulted in increased tensions between England and France which led to a number conflicts throughout history including The Hundred Years War (1337-1453). In 1492, King Charles VIII invaded Italy which began what is known as The Italian Wars (1494-1559). These were a series on conflicts between various European states for control over territory in Italy.
In 1589, Henry IV became King of France after converting to Catholicism from Protestantism. Under his rule, he worked to end tensions with Spain and restore peace within Europe. However, religious strife continued within France during this time as Huguenots (French Protestants) were persecuted by Catholics leading up to The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day in 1572 where thousands were killed.
During the 17th century, France experienced several major crises including economic decline due to poor harvests and high taxes as well as political instability caused by weak rulers such as Louis XIII and XIV. In addition, there was continued religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics culminating in The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) which was fought primarily on French soil resulting in great devastation across the country side leaving hundreds dead or displaced from their homes
The Capetian Dynasty
The Capetian Dynasty was a royal dynasty that ruled over the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. The dynasty was founded by Hugh Capet, the first King of the Franks, and it lasted for three centuries. The Capetian kings were strongly opposed to the feudal system and they worked to centralize power in the monarchy. They also expanded the kingdom’s territory by conquering new lands in Europe and Africa. Under the rule of the Capetian Dynasty, France became one of the most powerful countries in Europe.
The first King of the Capetian Dynasty was Hugh Capet, who was crowned in 987. He was succeeded by his son, Robert II, who ruled from 996 to 1031. Robert II’s son, Henry I, succeeded him and ruled from 1031 to 1060. Henry I’s son, Philip I, succeeded him and ruled from 1060 to 1108. Philip I’s son, Louis VI, succeeded him and ruled from 1108 to 1137. Louis VI’s son, Louis VII, succeeded him and ruled from 1137 to 1180. Louis VII’s son, Philip II Augustus, succeeded him and ruled from 1180 to 1223. Philip II Augustus’ sonLouis VIII ,succeeded him and
from 1223to 1226 . Louis VIII died without an heir , so his brother , Charles IV , ascendedthe throne . Charles IV reigned for less than two years before he died without an heir as well . This created a crisis because there were no more male heirs left in the direct lineof descentfrom Hugh Capet . As a result ,the crown passedto a distant cousin ,Robert , Count of Artois . Robert was proclaimed king as
Robert II but he never actually rulingbecause he died just one year later . The next kingwas another cousin Phillip III who also never reallygained controlof France becausethere were continual challengesfor his authority during his reign . In 1328Phillip III ‘s grandsonCharles IV ( third cousin once removedof Phillip ) finally regainedcontrolofFranceand successfullyendedthe dynasticcrisis that had begun with Charles IV death some 50 years earlier
The Valois Dynasty
The Valois dynasty was a royal family that ruled over France from the late 14th century to the early 16th century. The dynasty was founded by Charles V of France, who became king in 1364.
The Valois kings were:
Charles V (ruled from 1364 to 1380)
Charles VI (ruled from 1380 to 1422)
Charles VII (ruled from 1422 to 1461)
Louis XI (ruled from 1461 to 1483)
Charles VIII (ruled from 1483 to 1498)
Louis XII (ruled from 1498 to 1515)
Francis I (ruled from 1515 to 1547)
Henry II (ruled from 1547 to 1559)
During the Valois Dynasty, France was involved in many wars, including the Hundred Years’ War with England and several wars with Italy. The dynasty also saw the rise of Joan of Arc and the fall of Burgundy. In the end, the dynastic line died out and was succeeded by the House of Bourbon.
The Bourbon Dynasty
The Bourbon Dynasty was a ruling family of France that ruled from the late 1500s to the 1800s. The name ufffdBourbonufffd comes from their ancestral land, the Duchy of Bourbon in central France. They were a powerful and wealthy family, with many members becoming Kings or Queens of France.
The Bourbons first came to power in 1589 when King Henry IV, a member of the House of Valois-Angoulufffdme, declared himself King of France. He was succeeded by his son, King Louis XIII, in 1610. Louis XIII was just a child when he became king and so his mother, Marie deufffd Medici, served as regent until he turned 18.
During Louis XIIIufffds reign, Cardinal Richelieu served as his chief minister and helped to bring about the rise of absolutism in France. This meant that the king had complete control over the government and the people. Richelieu also worked to weaken the power of the nobility which further strengthened royal power.
Louis XIV, who is often considered one of the most powerful kings in history, succeeded his father in 1643 at just four years old. Like Louis XIII before him, his mother served as regent until he turned 18. During Louis XIVufffds long reign (he ruled for 72 years!), he expanded royal power even further and made France into one of the leading European powers. He is perhaps most famous for building Versailles Palace ufffd an opulent palace outside of Paris that became home to the French court (and remains one today).
The next Bourbon monarch was Louis XV who ascended to the throne in 1715 at just five years old after Louis XIV died without an heir apparent. Once again, a regent (this time it was Philippe II) governed on behalf of the young king until he turned 18. Under Louis XVufffds rule, France continued to be a leading European power but internal problems began to arise which would eventually lead to its downfallufffd
One major problem was financial ufffd duringLouis XVufffds reignFrance became increasingly indebted due toproducing more luxury goods than it could affordand costly wars such asthe Seven Years War(1756-1763). In additionto this,- -the philosophe Voltaire wrote scathing criticismsof monarchy and churchwhich gainedpopularity amongstthe growing middle classwho were disgruntledwith their lackof political powerand high taxes.(You can read more aboutVoltaire here.)
Another bigproblemwas thatmanyFrench peoplewere dissatisfiedwith howabsolute monarchyleadto corrupt officialsand nepotism(favoringrelativesin positionsofpower).This discontentboiledoverinto whatbecameknownasthe French Revolutionufffd acivil uprisingthat eventuallytoppledthe monarchyand establisheda republic.(You can read moreaboutthe FrenchRevolution here.)
The French Revolution
The French Revolution was a time of great upheaval and change in France. It began in 1789 with the storming of the Bastille, and ended in 1799 with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. In between, there were many changes in France, including the abolition of feudalism, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, and the Reign of Terror. The French Revolution was a time when ordinary people rose up against their rulers and fought for democracy.
The Third Republic
The Third Republic was the government of France from 1870 to 1940, when it was replaced by the Vichy regime following the German invasion. It had previously been in power from 1848 to 1852 and again from 1871 to 1940.
The Third Republic began with the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War (1870ufffd71), when Emperor Louis Napoleon was captured and deposed by the Prussians. The resulting Treaty of Frankfurt gave Germany a large indemnity, forced France to pay war reparations, and cede Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia. In addition, Napoleon III was tried and convicted of treason in absentia and his rule officially ended.
The French public initially blamed Napoleon III for their defeat, but eventually came to see him as a martyr who had sacrificed himself for the nation. His widow, Eugufffdnie de Montijo, went into exile in Spain with their son, Napolufffdon Eugufffdne Louis Jean Joseph Bonaparte.
After the Siege of Paris (1870ufffd71) ended on 28 January 1871, troops of the National Guard under Thiers’s command launched an insurrection against the new government on 18 March 1871. The uprising quickly spread across France as workers’ groups joined forces with students and republicans; within days it had become a full-scale civil war known as la Commune de Paris or simply “the Commune”. The Communards held Paris for two months before they were finally defeated by government troops on 28 May 1871 . . .
The “best history of france book” is a great place to start. It’s one of the most popular books on France, and it includes lots of information about how France has changed over time.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the best history of France?
From Revolution to Resistance: The 100 Best French History Books The World of France: A New Global History French History in Brief. French Nationalism: The Cult of the Nation, 1680–1800. 843–1180: France in the Making From Hugh Capet through Joan of Arc, the Middle Ages in France span the years 987–1460.
What is the history of France?
Gaul or Gallia was the early name for France. While the Celts still ruled the region, Julius Caesar led the Romans into Gaul. Roman forces decisively defeated the Celtic tribes in 121, and the Roman Empire established the First Roman Province (in the area of Narbonne).
How did France get it’s name?
It derives from the Latin phrase “realm of the Franks,” which referred to a tribe that resided in what is now France during the Roman era and meant “realm of the Franks.”
How was France founded?
The Kingdom of Francia, founded by the Germanic Franks, served as the center of the Carolingian Empire. The empire was divided at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and West Francia became the Kingdom of France in 987. France was a strong, but largely decentralized, feudal state throughout the High Middle Ages.
What are 5 facts about France?
France Facts for Kids The most visited nation worldwide is France. Texas Is Smaller Than France. The largest art museum is in France. Every year, the French consume 25,000 tons of snails. France makes around 1,500 different kinds of cheese. French supermarkets are not permitted to discard food. France once had a king, but he only reigned for 20 minutes.
How old is France?
Known right now: France The initial union of France took place under the name Francia in 486 AD, but it wasn’t until the Treaty of Verdun was signed in 843 AD that France became a nation-state. Francia was split into three regions by the Treaty of Verdun: the east, west, and centre.
Who made France?
The Franks, from whom France derives its name, started to seize control in the fourth century. Charlemagne unified the Franks in 768 and started to expand the realm. He was given the title of Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope, and today, both the French and German monarchs are credited with having him as their founder.
Who was the first king of France?
The first monarch of “France” (in its earliest phase) is often regarded as Clovis I (r. 481–511) in classical French history, however West Francia is really the beginning of such a monarchy.